Gap Analysis in book-format


The primary objective depends on the target group and their existing situation. Most of the projects offered step sequences to VET and labour market, like for instance:

  • Primary information about VET and labour market in the hosting country.
  • Raising awareness and interest towards the existing occupations and education and training needs.
  • Preparation, prequalification and experimentation for further measures.
  • Offering individual support mechanisms and job placements.
  • Practically oriented knowledge, which is usually gained through internships in companies.
  • Preparation for follow up activities.
  • Stimulating an interest for specific sectors of economy (like health and care economy, construction business or creative industries),among young immigrants, which they might not be aware of.
  • Strengthening language capabilities in general and specifically targeting specific sectors.
  • Reducing the labour market discrimination of the target group.
  • Matching the labour market needs with available competences.

A lot of projects were delivering specific activities and supportive components of the education and training business, like for instance

  • Empowering people through strengthening their own competences.
  • Strengthening the motivation of the participants.
  • Providing administrative, legal and social assistance.
  • Sensitization of the family environment (if the project is dedicated to young people).
  • Networking with employers.
  • Building networks with others to exchange.
  • Fighting deskilling 17.
  • Supporting psychological welfare.
  • Development of identity, self-esteem and confidence.
  • Coping with multiple identities (being an immigrant and being Dutch, German and so on at the same time).
  • Enabling community cohesion.

Some projects followed specific methodological background approaches that sometimes went beyond
individual coaching like for instance

  • Sensitising the organisations, companies and enterprises that (mainly young) migrants are a valuable
  • group of employees and may reduce the labour force shortages.
  • Raising awareness for the capabilities of migrants through specific public campaigns.
  • Inducing the recruiters in companies to modify the processes of recruitment.
  • As far as projects dealt with specific groups of migrants there were slightly different objectives and aims connected to the projects such as:
  • Supporting the general integration into the hosting society (refugees).
  • Guiding persons in the new society (unaccompanied minors).
  • Supporting the people in their primary education (unaccompanied minors).
  • Compiling documents and evaluating existing qualifications (migrants with formal permission to
  • access the labour market).

Some of the projects were dedicated to specific sectors; the health care sector being the most prominent one, but also the construction economy, the creative arts sector and tailoring are mentioned. All projects connected theoretical education (courses) with practical training (practices, traineeships); the courses were developed and delivered by practitioners from the thematical and vocational areas.

Although the nature of these projects was to improve access to VET and jobs, some projects specifically addressed additional aims that went beyond VET and integration of the labour market. For instance, one project from Italy (IT1) had as an additional objective the establishment of intercultural contacts among different ethnic groups, another Italian project (IT2) saw vocational empowerment as a means to interact in the social context to create social relationships. A project from France (FR1) clearly saw the integration of refugees into jobs as one aspect besides finding accommodation and providing administrative, legal and social assistance. The specific goal of another French project (FR2) dealing with unaccompanied minors was to offer a shelter to unaccompanied minors and to guide them towards schooling, which usually is a precondition for vocational education and training. The third French project (FR3) dealt with unaccompanied minors as well and stated the objectives (guidance towards schooling) as a prerequisite for further integration.

Even if the projects aimed at integrating migrants into specific sectors of business, there was only limited specification about the characteristics of the foreseen vocational integration. One project from Germany (DE3) has been an exception, as this project aimed at finding regular non-subsidized jobs and vocational training opportunities for immigrants, particular in the public service sector. This project intended to inform migrants and their parents about the opportunities in German dual VET in the public service system so that people’s perception was enhanced by showing that these institutions in German society welcome people with an immigration background (strengthening this welcoming culture was embedded into the project, too). This project had a specific systems approach as it intended to establish functional cooperations between schools and companies that fit to each other. In this way, the project demonstrated that the system of transition from school to work needs to change if discriminating processes shall be altered.

A project from the Netherlands (NL2) had comparable goals and activities as one part of the project was campaigning and as its purpose in a certain meaning went beyond individual enhancement of employability. Although there existed somewhat traditional mechanisms like developing individual generic soft skills (that are insufficiently addressed in regular school curricula) and promoting company visits and excursions to enterprises (to establish insights into the job environment), there was a strategic approach followed that addressed the transition from school to labour on a systematic level, too. Project teams on regional levels were established to learn how to network with a view to labour market orientation as an indirect result to increase the chances on the labour market on a broader level. A project from Austria (AT1) has been in a certain sense an exception as it not only and primarily aimed at finding jobs, but clearly put the employability of a person into the context of their qualifications to avoid ongoing de-skilling among migrants.