Gap Analysis in book-format

Methodological Approach

Holistic, individual and person-centred

Even though only a few projects branded their approach like that, the holistic, individual and person-centred
approach seems to be quite common. The services in these projects offer strictly individual and case-sensitive support to the participants.

One project from Austria (AT3) describes their holistic approach of individual guidance and support which
covered the whole environment of the target audience (school, family, enterprises) and connected vocational education and training with these environments (for instance through modifications of regular mainstream curricula at schools and through sensitization-measures and awareness-raising campaigns at companies). A project from Germany (DE2) is very similar to this and their approach is described as delivery of support and information about the next realistic steps to realize the framework conditions that are necessary to get access to the labour market. These framework conditions were dedicated to supporting the target group in finding child caring possibilities, getting access to available facilities of recognition of qualifications and related obectives. This German projects points out that the immanent consultancy services may include that the immigrants are accompanied in their procedures with the authorities.

A French project (FR3) describes this individual, personcentred approach as a way to validate and strengthen the educational and professional background of the person. A project from Italy (IT2) calls its approach non-formal but it seems to be very similar to the holistic and individual approach which is stated as a procedure where the individual opportunities, strengths and weaknesses define the quantity and quality of the concrete supporting activities.

A project from the Netherlands (NL3) and a project from England (UK1) describe this approach extensively as a combination of different features like:

  • Demand-driven intervention regarding the existing needs of the target group throughout the lifetime of theproject.
  • Assessment of skills, training-needs, expectations and additional supportive necessities like travel, childcare, mental and health treatments.
  • Tailored implementation of training sequences and internships in companies.
  • Culture sensitive mixture of individual training, training in groups, peer-sessions and personal coaching.
  • Creation of trust and confidence among the participants to foster mutual understanding and motivation.
  • Involvement of available formal and informal networks on site.
  • Involvement of supporting capacities of the environment (parents, school, neighbourhood).


Another Dutch project (NL1) followed a similar approach. Items like individual support, tailored offers, engagement and intercultural skills of staff constituted this approach, but with the addition that this project broadened that concept and defined the methodological approach as „mainstream if possible, tailored if needed“. This means that if it is not necessary to have a tailored approach for the target group then it is best to go for mainstream methods (e.g. basic vocational training course) and thereby not differentiating the target group from others. However, in some instances the target group has a need for an individual approach and in such instances it is an absolute necessity.